4. Black-box selection: A final ethical consideration regarding AI recruitment tools is the degree to which they explain why a candidate has potential for a given job (or not). It is not enough to predict future job performance - recruitment tools should also help us understand the basis of such prediction, which means having a rationale for selection or rejecting a candidate. For example, when voice-scraping algorithms identify a connection between certain physical properties of speech and job performance, it is important to understand what the basis for such a connection is. More specifically, is there a causal link between a person's voice and their performance; is this relationship caused by other (more relevant) variables; is the person able to control or modify their voice to improve their performance; and would hiring people with such voice have adverse impact against certain groups? To use a more extreme example, suppose that we looked at candidates' genetic data (DNA) to predict their potential suitability for a job or role. On the one hand, there are reasons to expect DNA data to be predictive of career potential, as all of the major facets of talent and job-related competencies (e.g., EQ, grit, IQ, entrepreneurship, and leadership) have a biological basis. On the other hand, even if such basis could be clearly identified at the genetic level, it would be ethically questionable to base recruitment decisions on such data, not least because of our inability to understand the exact processes by which such biological predispositions translate into different levels of performance, and the degree to which individuals are free to escape their genetic fate. Thus, even if black-box selection tools were legal, they may result in unethical hiring decisions and fail to explain why certain candidates are deemed more talented, which would also limit our ability to train and develop people's talents.
To conclude, there is no question that AI will enable us to improve our ability to match people to more suitable jobs and careers, which would have enormous personal, social, and economic benefits... so long as we deploy these new technologies in an ethical way. Giving people the right to choose to have their data mined, ensuring that they actually benefit from it (even when they don't get a job), and minimizing the risk of unfair decisions and harm to the candidate, would be a good starting point.